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Valid rate: The dumps store’s best guess about the percentage of cards from a given base that will come back as valid versus canceled by the issuing bank. If a base is advertised at a 70 percent valid rate, customers can expect an average 3 out of every 10 cards they buy from that base to be worthless. Cards advertised at valid rates in excess of 90 percent typically demand the highest prices, and are a strong indicator of a breach that has only just been discovered by the breached merchant or some of the larger financial institutions. For more granular examples of how valid rates are closely tied to the price of stolen cards, see Fire Sale on Cards Stolen in Target Breach and Sally Beauty Hit By Credit Card Breach .
By telling research participants that you'd like their feedback on list of possible names, you greatly increase the odds of hearing only negative, subjective reactions.
Do present names as if they are existing brands
Tell participants that the names are existing brands, though because they are sold in different regions the names might not be familiar. But avoid testing actual, known brands against unknown, candidate brand names. A known brand name will usually blow away unknown names in testing just because they are more familiar and have accrued secondary meaning over time.
Do present names in a credible, real-world context
Mock up a web page, product, package, business card or billboard to make the names seem real. Help respondents suspend their disbelief. To avoid confounding variables, each context should be identical.
Have an online-based brand? How about creating banner ads which differ by name only and measuring the click-through rates? That's a sure-fire way of measuring how much interest your names garner.
Do evaluate names against the brand positioning and attributes
With each name staged in its real-world context, ask participants to rank them against attributes or key words drawn from the positioning. For example: "These are five different laptop computers. Which is fastest? Which is most user-friendly? Which is most energy efficient?" Their responses will differ based only on the names.
Do evaluate the names against different product categories
To avoid category bias, tell participants these are names for products in a category different than the actual one. For example, if you're really testing names for a healthy juice, tell them they are names for a spa. Ask, "Which of these spas is the healthiest?" If you're naming a line of stylish clothes, tell them they are names of fashion magazines. "Which magazine is most stylish?" This works best when the alternate category embodies the target attribute (healthy=spa; style=fashion magazine, etc).
Don't use focus groups
The contrived nature of a focus group and their dynamics is ruinous for testing potential brand names. Conduct one-on-one interviews instead.
Focus groups are an appropriate way to establish strategy. They can help determine and prioritize brand attributes, understand competitor perception and inform positioning and messaging. But don't use focus groups for testing potential brand names.
I hope you find these principles and tactics of brand name research helpful. I'd love to hear if you've had success with unconventional name research.