The possibility for nerve regeneration after injury to the spinal cord was considered to be limited because of the absence of major neurogenesis . However, Joseph Altman showed that cell division does occur in the brain which allowed potential for stem cell therapy for nerve regeneration.   The stem cell-based therapies are used in order to replace cells lost and injured due to inflammation, to modulate the immune system, and to enhance regeneration and remyelination of axons.  Neural stem cells (NSC) have the potential to integrate with the spinal cord because in the recent past investigations have demonstrated their potential for differentiation into multiple cell types that are crucial to the spinal cord. Studies show that NSCs that were transplanted into a demyelinating spinal cord lesion were found to regenerate oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells , and completely remyelinated axons.