Possible intoxication effects of steroids

At the onset of this condition, fluid outside the cells has an excessively low amount of solutes, such as sodium and other electrolytes , in comparison to fluid inside the cells, causing the fluid to move into the cells to balance its concentration. This causes the cells to swell. In the brain, this swelling increases intracranial pressure (ICP), which leads to the first observable symptoms of water intoxication: headache, personality changes, changes in behavior, confusion, irritability, and drowsiness. These are sometimes followed by difficulty breathing during exertion, muscle weakness & pain, twitching, or cramping, nausea, vomiting, thirst, and a dulled ability to perceive and interpret sensory information. As the condition persists, papillary and vital signs may result including bradycardia and widened pulse pressure . The cells in the brain may swell to the point where blood flow is interrupted resulting in cerebral edema . Swollen brain cells may also apply pressure to the brain stem causing central nervous system dysfunction. Both cerebral edema and interference with the central nervous system are dangerous and could result in seizures, brain damage, coma or death. [11]

The use of beta-blockers for cocaine cardiovascular toxicity has been subject to a relative contraindication by many clinicians for several years despite extremely limited evidence. The phenomenon of “unopposed alpha-stimulation,” in which blood pressure increases or coronary artery vasoconstriction worsens after blockade of beta-2 vasodilation in cocaine-abusing patients, is controversial. [24] [25] This rarely-encountered and unpredictable adverse effect has resulted in some clinicians advocating for an absolute contraindication of the use of all beta-blockers, including specific, non-specific, and mixed. [26] Many clinicians have disregarded this dogma and administer beta-blockers for cocaine-related chest pain and acute coronary syndrome, especially when there is demand ischemia from uncontrolled tachycardia. [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] Of the 1,744 total patients identified in the aforementioned systematic review, [20] only 7 adverse events were from putative cases of “unopposed alpha-stimulation” due to propranolol (n=3), esmolol (n=3), and metoprolol (n=1). [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] Some detractors of beta-blockers for cocaine-induced chest pain have cited minimal acute mortality and the short half-life of the drug, making it unnecessary to aggressively treat any associated tachycardia and hypertension. [26] [37] However, the long-term effect of cocaine use and development of heart failure, with early mortality, high morbidity, and tremendous demand on hospital utilization should be taken under consideration. [38] [39] [40]

If a "specific intent" in either sense is required and there is clear evidence that the accused was too intoxicated to form the element subjectively, this fact is recognised as a defense unless the loss of control was part of the plan. But this is of little value to defendants since there are almost always offenses of basic intent that can be charged and/or the basic intent offenses are usually lesser included offenses and an alternative verdict can be delivered by judge or jury without the need for a separate charge. In English law , note the controversial Jaggard v Dickinson [1980] 3 All ER 716 which held that, for the purposes of the statutory defense of lawful excuse under s5 Criminal Damage Act 1971 , a drunken belief will found the defense even though this allows drunkenness to negate basic intent. This is limited authority and does not affect the generality of the defense.

10. Selected Outbreaks: Several cases of grayanotoxin poisonings in humans have been documented in the 1980s. These reports come from Turkey and Austria. The Austrian case resulted from the consumption of honey that was brought back from a visit to Turkey. From 1984 to 1986, 16 patients were treated for honey intoxication in Turkey. The symptoms started approximately 1 h after 50 g of honey was consumed. In an average of 24 h, all of the patients recovered. The case in Austria resulted in cardiac arrhythmia, which required a temporal pacemaker to prevent further decrease in heart rate. After a few hours, pacemaker simulation was no longer needed. The Austrian case shows that with increased travel throughout the world, the risk of grayanotoxin poisoning is possible outside the areas of Ericaceae-dominated vegetation, namely, Turkey, Japan, Brazil, United States, Nepal, and British Columbia. In 1983 several British veterinarians reported a incident of grayanotoxin poisoning in goats. One of the four animals died. Post-mortem examination showed grayanotoxin in the rumen contents.

Possible intoxication effects of steroids

possible intoxication effects of steroids

10. Selected Outbreaks: Several cases of grayanotoxin poisonings in humans have been documented in the 1980s. These reports come from Turkey and Austria. The Austrian case resulted from the consumption of honey that was brought back from a visit to Turkey. From 1984 to 1986, 16 patients were treated for honey intoxication in Turkey. The symptoms started approximately 1 h after 50 g of honey was consumed. In an average of 24 h, all of the patients recovered. The case in Austria resulted in cardiac arrhythmia, which required a temporal pacemaker to prevent further decrease in heart rate. After a few hours, pacemaker simulation was no longer needed. The Austrian case shows that with increased travel throughout the world, the risk of grayanotoxin poisoning is possible outside the areas of Ericaceae-dominated vegetation, namely, Turkey, Japan, Brazil, United States, Nepal, and British Columbia. In 1983 several British veterinarians reported a incident of grayanotoxin poisoning in goats. One of the four animals died. Post-mortem examination showed grayanotoxin in the rumen contents.

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