Two broad categories of treatments exist to treat oral thrush -- a traditional medical approach and a homeopathic approach. Traditional medications may either be topically applied (for example, nystatin , 1% gentian violet) or ingested in liquid form (for example, fluconazole [ Diflucan ]). Nystatin is generally applied four times a day for approximately five to seven days. One study (treating HIV/AIDS patients) demonstrated a cure rate of 52% (vs. 87% when employing fluconazole; the immune-compromised status of the study population may have affected outcomes). When treating infants and toddlers, application using a small gauze or Q-tip is more effective than just drinking the preparation. Most pediatricians will elect topical nystatin in lieu of oral medications for ease of administration, reserving the use of fluconazole for treatment failures; 1% gentian violet is rarely used due to the long-lasting bright purple stain it makes in the mouth or on clothing/bed linen.
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In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.