Retinal Physician®: Therapeutic and Surgical Treatment of the Posterior Segment delivers in-depth coverage of the latest advances in AMD, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, retinal vein occlusion as well as surgical intervention in posterior segment care. It reaches both retinal specialists and general ophthalmologists with practical insight regarding current and future treatment strategies in medical and surgical retina care. The most comprehensive retinal care journal, Retinal Physician puts into perspective what the scientific developments mean to today’s practice and discusses ramifications of new studies, treatments and patient management strategies. Published nine times per year.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
Numerous trials (CATT trial, IVAN trial, GEFAL, MANTA, LUCAS) conducted worldwide have shown Bevacizumab injection in the eye to be non-inferior to Ranibizumab injection in the eye in terms of efficacy and safety in AMD. Bevacizumab on the other hand has the advantage of significantly reducing the cost of therapy. However, intravitreal bavacizumab injection has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the use in the eye is hence 'off label'. All patients need to be clearly informed when taking written consent for intraocular bevacizumab.