Postoperative pain management can be really effective if well planned, delivered in a consistent, evidence based manner and based on patients’ assessment of their own pain whenever possible. There are many factors that cause postoperative pain which means that no two patients, even if they are having the same operation, will experience the same pain and health professionals need to be aware of this. Pain is the 5 th vital sign and robust protocols, team working and regular evaluation need to underpin postoperative pain management.
Awareness and educational efforts are working to help prevent anabolic steroid abuse in schools and communities. The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) and the Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) programs, funded by the NIDA, and supported by the Oregon Health & Science University programs is teaching athletes that they do not need steroids to build powerful muscles and improve athletic performance. These programs provide weight-training and nutrition alternatives, increase healthy behaviors, less likelihood to try steroids, and less likelihood to engage in other dangerous behaviors such as drinking and driving, use of marijuana and alcohol , and and improved body image. Bother Congress and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration endorsed these model prevention programs. 4
Biphasic anaphylaxis is seen in up to 20 percent of patients, occurring in both children and adults, though it was once thought to be rarer. In this presentation, the initial anaphylactic reaction would manifest and it would resolve, only to have the reaction return hours to days later. This is why someone may be admitted to the hospital for observation after an anaphylactic reaction. In some cases, people won't experience the most severe symptoms of anaphylaxis, such as difficulty breathing, and thus decide not to seek medical care. However, this puts them at risk for a biphasic reaction, which can lead to severe consequences.